JACK GAGLIARDI, Homeopath, Hom, DSHomMed, RCSHom,

Registered Homeopath with
College of Homeopaths of Ontario (Registration #15043)

(416) 832-3448
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Clinical Studies

Clinical Studies

Please find below, several clinical studies of homeopathy. There is a significant body of research that provides evidence that homeopathy is effective. One important study was a review, published in 1998 in the prestigious medical journal, The Lancet (Lancet, September 20, 1997, 350:834-843.), of 89 homeopathic clinical trials. The results showed that patients taking homeopathic medicines were 2.45 times more likely to experience a positive therapeutic effect than placebo.

There have been studies discrediting homeopathy and the majority of them have design flaws in that one specific homeopathic remedy is given to all patients with a specific disease. Homeopathy is being tested as if it is conventional medicine (drugs prescribed for a specific disease name). Homeopathy does not work that way. (See Homeopathic Philosophy).

For example, in a flawed study, the remedy Rhus-Tox may be given to all patients with arthritis. Homeopathic prescriptions are based on individual symptoms expressed uniquely with each patient. So a proper study would take this into consideration: One patient with arthtritis that is worse for dampness, worse in the morning and better for gentle motion will receive a different remedy than an arthrtitic patient who is better in the morning, worse for any movement at all and is much relieved by rainy days and cold compresses.

In a conventional study, a single remedy selection for a given conventionally-diagnosed condition is not homeopathy, yet there are numerous conventionally-judged high quality studies that were so designed. The analogy for a pharmaceutical medicine would be to test the effects of penicillin for all patients with symptoms of an apparent infection. The quality of the studies would otherwise be excellent in design. However, penicillin will not work for patients with viral infections or bacterial infections resistant to its effects or for persons with fevers from other non-infectious causes - and it thus might show benefit only for a subset of patients with symptoms of infections, i.e., the ones with true penicillin-sensitive infections. How would penicillin fare in a meta-analysis of studies designed to ignore the intrinsic nature of penicillin in benefiting patients?

Many critics of homeopathy claim that the effects of homeopathic remedies are simply placebo, claiming there are no active ingredients in a highly potentized remedy. Well, that has all changed as science has finally caught up to what homeopaths have known for over 200 years.

Click here to read more from the August 2007 edition of "Homeopathy Today" summarizing the work of the Materials Engineering Department of Penn State University and the University of Arizona College of Medicine.
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To view a PDF of References of Clinical Research in Favour of Homeopathy, click here.


Rheumatology (Oxford). 2004 May;43(5):577-82. Epub 2004 Jan 20.

Improved clinical status in fibromyalgia patients treated with individualized homeopathic remedies versus placebo.

Bell IR, Lewis DA 2nd, Brooks AJ, Schwartz GE, Lewis SE, Walsh BT, Baldwin CM.

Department of Psychiatry, Mel and Enid Zuckerman Arizona College of Public Health at the University of Arizona, Tucson, USA. IBELL@U.ARIZONA.EDU

OBJECTIVE: To assess the efficacy of individualized classical homeopathy in the treatment of fibromyalgia. METHODS: This study was a double-blind, randomized, parallel-group, placebo-controlled trial of homeopathy. Community-recruited persons (N = 62) with physician-confirmed fibromyalgia (mean age 49 yr, s.d. 10 yr, 94% women) were treated in a homeopathic private practice setting. Participants were randomized to receive oral daily liquid LM (1/50,000) potencies with an individually chosen homeopathic remedy or an indistinguishable placebo. Homeopathic visits involved joint interviews and concurrence on remedy selection by two experienced homeopaths, at baseline, 2 months and 4 months (prior to a subsequent optional crossover phase of the study which is reported elsewhere). Tender point count and tender point pain on examination by a medical assessor uninvolved in providing care, self-rating scales on fibromyalgia-related quality of life, pain, mood and global health at baseline and 3 months, were the primary clinical outcome measures for this report. RESULTS: Fifty-three people completed the treatment protocol. Participants on active treatment showed significantly greater improvements in tender point count and tender point pain, quality of life, global health and a trend toward less depression compared with those on placebo. CONCLUSIONS: This study replicates and extends a previous 1-month placebo-controlled crossover study in fibromyalgia that pre-screened for only one homeopathic remedy. Using a broad selection of remedies and the flexible LM dose (1/50,000 dilution factor) series, the present study demonstrated that individualized homeopathy is significantly better than placebo in lessening tender point pain and improving the quality of life and global health of persons with fibromyalgia.

Complement Ther Med. 2005 Jun;13(2):87-90.

The effect of the homeopathic remedies Arnica montana and Bellis perennis on mild postpartum bleeding--a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study--preliminary results.

Oberbaum M, Galoyan N, Lerner-Geva L, Singer SR, Grisaru S, Shashar D, Samueloff A.

The Center for Integrative Complementary Medicine, Shaare Zedek Medical Center, Jerusalem 91031, Israel. oberbaum@szmc.org.il

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effect of Arnica Montana and Bellis perennis on postpartum blood loss. DESIGN: Double blind, placebo-controlled, randomized, clinical trial. SETTING: Department of Gynecology, Shaare Zedek Medical Center, Jerusalem. INTERVENTIONS: Forty parturients were randomized to one of three groups: Arnica montana C6 and Bellis perennis C6 (n=14), Arnica montana C30 and Bellis perennis C30 (n=14), or double placebo (n=12). After 48 h the Arnica/placebo was halted, and patients continued the Bellis/placebo until cessation of lochia. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Hemoglobin levels (Hb) at 48 and 72 h postpartum. RESULTS: At 72 h postpartum, mean Hb levels remained similar after treatment with homeopathic remedies (12.7 versus 12.4) as compared to a significant decrease in Hb levels in the placebo group (12.7 versus 11.6; p<0.05), in spite of less favorable initial characteristics of the treatment group. The mean difference in Hb levels at 72 h postpartum was -0.29 (95% CI -1.09; 0.52) in the treatment group and -1.18 (95% CI -1.82; -0.54) in the placebo group (p<0.05). CONCLUSION: Treatment with homeopathic Arnica montana and Bellis perennis may reduce postpartum blood loss, as compared with placebo.

J Altern Complement Med. 2005 Oct;11(5):793-8.

Homeopathic treatment for chronic disease: a 6-year, university-hospital outpatient observational study. Spence DS, Thompson EA, Barron SJ.

United Bristol Healthcare, National Health Service Trust, Bristol, United Kingdom. David.Spence@ubht.nhs.uk

Over 6,500 consecutive patients took part in the study, published in the latest issue of the international, peer-reviewed Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine. A wide range of chronic diseases were treated including eczema, asthma, migraine, irritable bowel syndrome, menopause, arthritis, depression and chronic fatigue syndrome. The most marked improvements were seen in children – 89% of under 16s with asthma reported improvement and 75% felt ‘better’ or ‘much better’, as did 68% of eczema patients under 16.

Dr David Spence, Clinical Director and Consultant Physician at Bristol Homeopathic Hospital and Chairman of the British Homeopathic Association, a co-author of the study, says: “These results clearly demonstrate the value of homeopathy in the NHS. This is a very large number of patients with conditions that are difficult to treat successfully with conventional medicine. “One of the criticisms levelled at homeopathy is that it only works because of the length of the consultation. But in fact the appointment times at Bristol Homeopathic Hospital are very similar to those for other specialties at United Bristol Healthcare NHS Trust such as rheumatology, neurology and respiratory medicine and are substantially less than for psychiatry.”

All the patients were referred by their GP or hospital specialist and many had tried conventional treatment first without success. Commenting on the study, the Editor-in-Chief of the Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine, Dr Kim Jobst said: “These are response rates with which any orthodox NHS medical health provider or pharmaceutical company would be justly pleased.”

The study, which is the largest consecutive homeopathic clinical series ever reported, echoes findings from Tunbridge Wells Homeopathic Hospital in 2000, where 74% of 1372 patients reported a positive result from homeopathic treatment, and similarly at Liverpool Department of Homeopathic Medicine in 2001, where 76% of 1100 patients reported an improvement of their condition.

In 1974 and 1998 two Professors of Medicine from the University Foundation in Blumenau, Brazil, conducted a study on Meningococcal disease and homeopathic prophlaxis.

In 1974, during a meningococcus outbreak in Brazil, 18,640 patients were given the homeopathic remedy Meningococcinum prophylaxis while 6,430 received no treatment. The treatment group reported 4 cases to 32 cases in the no treatment group (23 times more effective than no treatment).

In 1998, a total of 65,826 people between the ages of 0-20 were given a Homeopathic prophylaxis for protection against Meningococcal disease while 23,532 were not. Over a 12-month period, the following results were obtained:

65,826 protected homeopathically - 4 cases of Meningococcal infection. 23,532 not protected - 20 cases of Meningococcal infection.

Based on the infection (attack) rate in the unprotected group, 58 cases of infection would have been expected in the homeopathically protected group. Instead, there were only four cases of Meningococcal infection. Statistical analysis showed that Homeopathic prophylaxis offered 95% protection in the first six months and 91% protection over the year against Meningococcal disease.

Homeopathic Immunization in Cuba

Cuba goes through a yearly cycle of Leptospirosis epidemic, especially after the hurricanes flood the countryside and water pollution reaches its height. (Leptospirosis: infectious disease caused by the spirochaete Leptospira transmitted to humans from rats, giving jaundice and kidney damage. Can cause death)

Annually the population is exposed to the disease, most especially after hurricanes.

Until Aug 2007, the Finlay Institute (a part of the Ministry of Public Health, Cuba) has been distributing its own allopathic Lepto vaccination. August is the height of the hurricane season. Annually, many are left homeless, flooded out and under the stress of disaster situation. There had been a sharp rise in the lepto epidemic.

The usual expectacy of infection even with allopathic vaccination would have been around a few thousands, with some deaths included.

Part of the reason for this is that the high cost of vaccination prevents putting but the most at-risk populations (ie children, pregnant women, elderly) on vaccination. The cost of such limited vaccination is about US $3,000.000.

But in Aug 2007, Finlay put approximately 5,000,000 people (5 million) in 2 provinces on homeopathic nosode prophylaxis at the cost of about only US $200,000.

That figure represents the entire population of the 2 provinces. The Homeopathic Prophylaxis consisted of 2 single doses about 2 weeks apart.

But this time, within 2 weeks after Aug 2007, the rising lines literally dropped off the chart to ten infections only! Zero deaths from leptospirosis after Aug 2007. And in 2008, no deaths, infections less than 10 a month.

The Cuban team readily admits that they have not invented anything new as far as homeopathic philosophy or application. They have simply followed what we homeopaths know to work. And since they have no pharmaceutical multi-nationals to stop them, they were able to do it on a massive scale unknown in the history of homeopathy.

Treatment of acute childhood diarrhea with homeopathic medicine: a randomized clinical trial in Nicaragua.
Jacobs J, Jimenez LM, Gloyd SS, Gale JL, Crothers D.

Department of Epidemiology, School of Public Health and Community Medicine, University of Washington, Seattle.

OBJECTIVE. Acute diarrhea is the leading cause of pediatric morbidity and mortality worldwide. Oral rehydration treatment can prevent death from dehydration, but does not reduce the duration of individual episodes. Homeopathic treatment for acute diarrhea is used in many parts of the world. This study was performed to determine whether homeopathy is useful in the treatment of acute childhood diarrhea. METHODOLOGY. A randomized double-blind clinical trial comparing homeopathic medicine with placebo in the treatment of acute childhood diarrhea was conducted in Leon, Nicaragua, in July 1991. Eighty-one children aged 6 months to 5 years of age were included in the study. An individualized homeopathic medicine was prescribed for each child and daily follow-up was performed for 5 days. Standard treatment with oral rehydration treatment was also given. RESULTS. The treatment group had a statistically significant (P < .05) decrease in duration of diarrhea, defined as the number of days until there were less than three unformed stools daily for 2 consecutive days. There was also a significant difference (P < .05) in the number of stools per day between the two groups after 72 hours of treatment. CONCLUSIONS. The statistically significant decrease in the duration of diarrhea in the treatment group suggests that homeopathic treatment might be useful in acute childhood diarrhea. Further study of this treatment deserves consideration.

Int J Oncol. 2003 Oct;23(4):975-82.

Ruta 6 selectively induces cell death in brain cancer cells but proliferation in normal peripheral blood lymphocytes: A novel treatment for human brain cancer.
Pathak S, Multani AS, Banerji P, Banerji P. Source

Department of Molecular Genetics, M.D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX 77030, USA. pathak_sen@yahoo.com Abstract

Although conventional chemotherapies are used to treat patients with malignancies, damage to normal cells is problematic. Blood-forming bone marrow cells are the most adversely affected. It is therefore necessary to find alternative agents that can kill cancer cells but have minimal effects on normal cells. We investigated the brain cancer cell-killing activity of a homeopathic medicine, Ruta, isolated from a plant, Ruta graveolens. We treated human brain cancer and HL-60 leukemia cells, normal B-lymphoid cells, and murine melanoma cells in vitro with different concentrations of Ruta in combination with Ca3(PO4)2. Fifteen patients diagnosed with intracranial tumors were treated with Ruta 6 and Ca3(PO4)2. Of these 15 patients, 6 of the 7 glioma patients showed complete regression of tumors. Normal human blood lymphocytes, B-lymphoid cells, and brain cancer cells treated with Ruta in vitro were examined for telomere dynamics, mitotic catastrophe, and apoptosis to understand the possible mechanism of cell-killing, using conventional and molecular cytogenetic techniques. Both in vivo and in vitro results showed induction of survival-signaling pathways in normal lymphocytes and induction of death-signaling pathways in brain cancer cells. Cancer cell death was initiated by telomere erosion and completed through mitotic catastrophe events. We propose that Ruta in combination with Ca3(PO4)2 could be used for effective treatment of brain cancers, particularly glioma.

J Acupunct Meridian Stud. 2013 Aug;6(4):180-7. doi: 10.1016/j.jams.2013.04.004. Epub 2013 Apr 28.

The Potentized Homeopathic Drug, Lycopodium clavatum (5C and 15C) Has Anti-cancer Effect on HeLa Cells In Vitro.
Samadder A, Das S, Das J, Paul A, Boujedaini N, Khuda-Bukhsh AR. Source

Cytogenetics and Molecular Biology Laboratory, Department of Zoology, University of Kalyani, Kalyani, West Bengal, India.


Cancer is a disease that needs a multi-faceted approach from different systems of medicine. The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether homeopathically-potentized ultra-high dilutions of Lycopodium Clavatum (LC-5C and LC-15C, respectively) have any anti-cancer effects on HeLa cells. Cells were exposed to either LC-5C (diluted below Avogadro's limit, i.e., 10(-10)) or LC-15C (diluted beyond Avogadro's limit, i.e., 10(-30)) (drug-treated) or to 30% succussed ethanol ("vehicle" of the drug). The drug-induced modulation in the percent cell viability, the onset of apoptosis, and changes in the expressions of Bax, Bcl2, caspase 3, and Apaf proteins in inter-nucleosomal DNA, in mitochondrial membrane potentials and in the release of cytochrome-c were analyzed by utilizing different experimental protocols. Results revealed that administration of LC-5C and LC-15C had little or no cytotoxic effect in normal peripheral blood mononuclear cells, but caused considerable cell death through apoptosis in cancer (HeLa) cells, which was evident from the induction of DNA fragmentation, the increases in the expressions of protein and mRNA of caspase 3 and Bax, and the decreases in the expressions of Bcl2 and Apaf and in the release of cytochrome-c. Thus, the highly-diluted, dynamized homeopathic remedies LC-5C and LC-15C demonstrated their capabilities to induce apoptosis in cancer cells, signifying their possible use as supportive medicines in cancer therapy.

Homeopathy. 2005 Jul;94(3):175-81.

Effects of homeopathic treatment on salivary flow rate and subjective symptoms in patients with oral dryness: a randomized trial.

Haila S, Koskinen A, Tenovuo J.

Porin Hammaspiste, Pori, Finland. sirkka.haila@plusterveys.fi

Twenty-eight patients with xerostomia participated in a blind, placebo-controlled longitudinal study of the possible effects of homeopathic medicines on oral discomfort. All patients were first divided in two groups according to their medication. After that the two groups were randomly assigned according to a coin-toss to the experimental or control group. Most patients had systemic diseases, such as rheumatoid arthritis and/or Sjogren's syndrome, and frequent daily medications. The randomly selected experimental group (n=15) got an individually prescribed homeopathic medicine and the control group (n=13) a placebo substance (sugar granules), both for 6 weeks. Neither group knew of the nature of the medicine. Oral dryness was evaluated by measurement of unstimulated and wax-stimulated salivary flow rates and visual analogue scale. With only two exceptions, the experimental group experienced a significant relief of xerostomia whereas no such effect was found in the placebo group. Stimulated salivary flow rate was slightly higher with homeopathy than placebo but no consistent changes occurred in salivary immunoglobulin (IgA, IgG) levels. In an open follow-up period those receiving homeopathic medicine continued treatment and the placebo group patients were treated with individually prescribed homeopathic medicines. The symptoms of xerostomia improved in both groups. Our results suggest that individually prescribed homeopathic medicine could be a valuable adjunct to the treatment of oral discomfort and xerostomic symptoms.

Jun 2013

Homeopathic medicine for acute cough in upper respiratory tract infections and acute bronchitis: A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial.

Zanasi A, Mazzolini M, Tursi F, Morselli-Labate AM, Paccapelo A, Lecchi M.

Pulm Pharmacol Ther. 2013 May 25.


Cough is a frequent symptom associated to upper respiratory tract infections (URTIs) and, although being self-limiting, it might deeply affect the quality of life. Homeopathic products are often employed by patients to treat cough, but the evidence on their efficacy is scarce. Thus, we tested the efficacy of a homeopathic syrup in treating cough arising from URTIs with a randomized, double blind, placebo controlled clinical trial. Patients were treated with either the homeopathic syrup or a placebo for a week, and recorded cough severity in a diary by means of a verbal category-descriptive score for two weeks. Sputum viscosity was assessed with a viscosimeter before and after 4 days of treatment; patients were also asked to provide a subjective evaluation of viscosity. Eighty patients were randomized to receive placebo (n = 40) or the homeopathic syrup (n = 40). All patients completed the study. In each group cough scores decreased over time, however, after 4 and 7 days of treatment, cough severity was significantly lower in the homeopathic group than in the placebo one (P < 0.001 and P = 0.023, respectively). Sputum was collected from 53 patients: in both groups its viscosity significantly decreased after 4 days of treatment (P < 0.001); however, viscosity was significantly lower in the homeopathic group (P = 0.018). Instead, the subjective evaluation did not significantly differ between the two groups (P = 0.059). No adverse events related to any treatment were reported. We concluded that the homeopathic syrup employed in the study was able to effectively reduce cough severity and sputum viscosity, thereby representing a valid remedy for the management of acute cough induced by URTIs.

Long term evaluation of homeopathy on post treatment impairment of pulmonary tuberculosis Jun 2013

Long term evaluation of homeopathy on post treatment impairment of pulmonary tuberculosis Sharma, S., Sharma, N. BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine 2012

Purpose: Previous studies show that treated and cured pulmonary tuberculosis patients do suffer from pulmonary impairment, lower health related quality of life, disability and long term morbidity, thus responsible for a majority of the disease burden. Despite this, no effective management is available for most of the patients. Therefore, the present study was undertaken to evaluate the impact of homeopathy on pulmonary, functional and quality of life status of patients with pulmonary tuberculosis who have completed treatment.

Methods Patients who were cured and had completed anti-tuberculosis treatment within a period of 5 years were enrolled in a randomized double-blind placebo-controlled trial. Individualised homeopathy treatment was given to 61 patients and identical placebo to 57 patients. Symptomatic changes, pulmonary function tests, and health related quality of life were assessed prior to treatment, after 6 months of intervention, and followed up for a year after completing the intervention.

Results Significant improvement was observed with the homeopathy treatment in FEV1 (p<0.001), forced vital capacity (p<0.001), and FEV1/FVC ratio (p=0.002). Symptom scores for cough and breathlessness were significantly lower with homeopathy than with placebo (p<0.001). At the end of treatment, patients on homeopathy had increased body weight (p<0.0001), and better quality of life (p<0.05) compared with placebo (p=0.003). Benefits were maintained in the homeopathy group after a year whereas symptoms (p<0.01) and impact score (p<0.001) deteriorated in placebo. Physicians visits were reduced in the homeopathy group by 58.0% (p =0.002) compared to placebo (p<0.0001).

Conclusion Homeopathy is effective in improving lung capacity and health status. Benefits remain evident after a year. This suggests that homeopathy could make an important contribution to post treatment tuberculosis pulmonary impairment.

Influence of Homeopathic Potassium Dichromate on Tracheal Secretions in Critically Ill Patients
Michael Frass, MD, Christoph Dielacher, RN, Manfred Linkesch, MD, Christian Endler, PhD, Ilse Muchitsch, PhD, Ernst Schuster, PhD, and Alan Kaye, MD

+ Author Affiliations *From the Ludwig Boltzmann Institute for Homeopathy (Drs. Frass, Endler, and Muchitsch), Vienna, Austria; II Department of Internal Medicine (Mr. Dielacher and Dr. Linkesch); Department of Medical Computer Sciences (Dr. Schuster), University of Vienna, Vienna, Austria; and Department of Anesthesiology (Dr. Kaye), Texas Tech University Lubbock, TX.


Background: Stringy, tenacious tracheal secretions may prevent extubation in patients weaned from the respirator. This prospective, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study with parallel assignment was performed to assess the influence of sublingually administered potassium dichromate C30 on the amount of tenacious, stringy tracheal secretions in critically ill patients with a history of tobacco use and COPD.

Methods: In this study, 50 patients breathing spontaneously with continuous positive airway pressure were receiving either potassium dichromate C30 globules (group 1) [Deutsche Homöopathie-Union, Pharmaceutical Company; Karlsruhe, Germany] or placebo (group 2). Five globules were administered twice daily at intervals of 12 h. The amount of tracheal secretions on day 2 after the start of the study as well as the time for successful extubation and length of stay in the ICU were recorded.

Results: The amount of tracheal secretions was reduced significantly in group 1 (p < 0.0001). Extubation could be performed significantly earlier in group 1 (p < 0.0001). Similarly, length of stay was significantly shorter in group 1 (4.20 ± 1.61 days vs 7.68 ± 3.60 days, p < 0.0001 [mean ± SD]).

Conclusion: These data suggest that potentized (diluted and vigorously shaken) potassium dichromate may help to decrease the amount of stringy tracheal secretions in COPD patients.

A randomized, controlled clinical trial of the homeopathic medication TRAUMEEL s® in the treatment of chemotherapy-induced stomatitis in children undergoing stem cell transplantation
Menachem Oberbaum M.D.1,*,†, Isaac Yaniv M.D.2, Yael Ben-Gal R.N.2, Jerry Stein M.D.2, Nurit Ben-Zvi R.N.2, Laurence S. Freedman Ph.D.3, David Branski M.D.4

Article first published online: 9 AUG 2001
Copyright © 2001 American Cancer Society

Isssue Cancer

Volume 92, Issue 3, pages 684–690, 1 August 2001

Stomatitis is a common consequence of chemotherapy and a condition for which there is little effective treatment. Although the management of patients with other chemotherapy-related toxicities has improved in recent years, the incidence of stomatitis is increasing because of more intensive treatment and is often a dose limiting factor in chemotherapy. The authors assessed the efficacy of a homeopathic remedy, TRAUMEEL S®, in the management of chemotherapy-induced stomatitis in children undergoing bone marrow transplantation.


A randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind clinical trial was conducted in 32 patients ages 3–25 years who had undergone allogeneic (16 patients) or autologous (16 patients) stem cell transplantation. Of the 30 evaluable patients, 15 were assigned placebo, and 15 were assigned TRAUMEEL S both as a mouth rinse, administered five times daily from 2 days after transplantation for a minimum of 14 days, or until at least 2 days after all signs of stomatitis were absent. Stomatitis scores were evaluated according to the World Health Organization grading system for mucositis.


A total of five patients (33%) in the TRAUMEEL S treatment group did not develop stomatitis compared with only one patient (7%) in the placebo group. Stomatitis worsened in only 7 patients (47%) in the TRAUMEEL S treatment group compared with 14 patients (93%) in the placebo group. The mean area under the curve stomatitis scores were 10.4 in the TRAUMEEL S treatment group and 24.3 in the placebo group. This difference was statistically significant (P < 0.01).

CONCLUSIONS This study indicates that TRAUMEEL S may reduce significantly the severity and duration of chemotherapy-induced stomatitis in children undergoing bone marrow transplantation. Cancer 2001;92:684–90. © 2001 American Cancer Society.

Homeopathy. 2005 Apr;94(2):81-5.

Comparative efficacy of homeopathic and allopathic systems of medicine in the management of clinical mastitis of Indian dairy cows.

Varshney JP, Naresh R.

Indian Veterinary Research Institute, Izatnagar-243 122, India.

Mastitis is the major problem of dairy animals despite a number of preventive and therapeutic approaches. Treatment is costly and out of reach of farmers of developing countries like India. The treatment cost of bovine mastitis with conventional treatment has been calculated. Good results have been claimed with homeopathic treatment however, treatment costs are not available. This article reports the treatment economics of homeopathic drugs conventional drugs for the management of bovine mastitis. Ninety-six mastitic quarters (non-fibrosed 67 and fibrosed 29) were treated with a homeopathic combination medicine. Another 96 quarters with acute mastitis (non-fibrosed) treated with different antibiotics were included in the study. The animals were selected from dairy farm of the Indian Veterinary Research Institute and from private dairy farms. The overall effectiveness of homeopathic combination medicine in the treatment of acute non-fibrosed mastitis was 86.6% with a mean recovery period of 7.7 days (range 3-28), and total cost of therapy as Indian Rupees 21.4 (0.39 Euros, US$ 0.47). The corresponding cure rate for the antibiotic group was 59.2% with a mean recovery period of 4.5 days (range 2-15) and an average treatment cost of Rs.149.20 (2.69 Euros, US$ 3.28). We conclude that the combination of Phytolacca, Calcarea fluorica., Silica, Belladonna, Bryonia, Arnica, Conium and Ipecacuanha (Healwell VT-6) was effective and economical in the management of mastitis in lactating dairy cows.

Ann Pharmacother. 2005 Apr;39(4):617-24. Epub 2005 Mar 1.

Comment in: Ann Pharmacother. 2005 Apr;39(4):736-8.

Treatment of seasonal allergic rhinitis using homeopathic preparation of common allergens in the southwest region of the US: a randomized, controlled clinical trial.

Kim LS, Riedlinger JE, Baldwin CM, Hilli L, Khalsa SV, Messer SA, Waters RF.

Southwest College Research Institute, Southwest College of Naturopathic Medicine & Health Sciences, Tempe, AZ 85282-1751, USA. l.kim@scnm.edu

BACKGROUND: Studies using homeopathy have reported beneficial effects from treating allergy-related conditions. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effects of a homeopathic drug prepared from common allergens (tree, grass, weed species) specific to the Southwest region of the US. METHODS: A 4-week, double-blind clinical trial comparing homeopathic preparations with placebo was conducted in the Phoenix metropolitan area during the regional allergy season from February to May. Participants included 40 men and women, 26-63 years of age, diagnosed with moderate to severe seasonal allergic rhinitis symptoms. Study outcomes included allergy-specific symptoms using the rhinoconjunctivitis quality-of-life questionnaire (RQLQ), functional quality of life using the Medical Outcomes Study Short Form-36 (MOS SF-36), and the work productivity and activity impairment (WPAI) questionnaire. RESULTS: Scales from the RQLQ, MOS SF-36, and WPAI questionnaire showed significant positive changes from baseline to 4 weeks in the homeopathic group compared with the placebo group (p < 0.05). Subjects reported no adverse effects during the intervention period. CONCLUSIONS: These preliminary findings indicate potential benefits of the homeopathic intervention in reducing symptoms and improving quality of life in patients with seasonal allergic rhinitis in the Southwestern US.

Homeopathy. 2004 Oct;93(4):210-5.

Homeopathic treatment of radiation-induced itching in breast cancer patients. A prospective observational study.

Schlappack O.

Department of Radiotherapy and Radiobiology, University of Vienna, Waehringer Guertel 18-20 A-1090 Vienna, Austria. Otto.Schlappack@medunivie.ac.at

Following surgery for carcinoma of the breast, patients receive local radiotherapy. This can cause itching, which may be severe, in the radiation field. The affected skin usually is dry, rough and red. Twenty-five patients were treated homeopathically for radiation-induced itching. Fourteen patients developed itching during their course of post-operative radiation at 27 days median (range: 14-40). Eleven patients experienced itching in the radiation field after completion of treatment (median 21 days) after the end of their radiation treatment. A single dose of an individually selected homeopathic medicine in 30C dilution was given in the clinic, on the basis of repertorisation. Patients were asked to record a visual analogue scale (VAS) before prescription of the homeopathic medicine and at follow-up. Patients were evaluated at median 3 days (range: 1-27 days) after administration of the homeopathic medicine. In total, 14 of 25 patients (56%) responded to the first medicine. Nine patients had a second medicine, seven responded. Altogether 21 of 25 (84%) patients were successfully treated. The following medicines were employed successfully: Fl-ac 9/13, Rhus-t 3/5, Caust 2/3, Ign 2/2, Psor 2/2, gamma-ray 2/2 and Kali-bi 1/1. The VAS measurements before and after homeopathic treatment showed a reduction of the median value of 64mm (range: 20-100mm) to 34mm (median; range: 0-84mm). Homeopathic treatment of radiation-induced itching appears quite successful. The most frequently indicated and most frequently effective medicine was Fluoric acid. An approach that allows greater understanding of the patient as a whole in the short time available in a busy clinic may be required.

Homeopathy Proven Successful for ADHD
Randall Neustaedter OMD

The number of children put on drugs for attention problems is staggering, and school authorities pressure parents to use dangerous stimulant medications and antidepressants to keep children behaving in specific desirable patterns in the classroom. The approach of holistic pediatrics offers an effective management system for attention problems (so-called ADD and ADHD). An important component of this system includes the prescription of constitutional homeopathic medicines according the principles of classical homeopathy.

Clinical Study Design

Now a carefully controlled clinical trial has shown that homeopathy does significantly improve attention. This study was published in the July 27, 2005 online edition of the European Journal of Pediatrics. The study, conducted in Switzerland, followed 62 children diagnosed with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). All children were carefully diagnosed with a number of screening instruments to verify the diagnosis of ADHD, excluding other diagnoses. The study involved three phases. First the children were treated with a constitutional homeopathic medicine individualized to their case. Only the children who improved by at least 50 percent on an ADHD rating scale were included in the second phase of the study, a crossover trial with a placebo group. Following that crossover phase, the children were then treated again with their homeopathic medicine in an open label phase.

The primary device for measuring improvement was the Conners Global Index (CGI), a 10-item rating scale containing the most important ADHD symptoms (temper outbursts, excitability, impulsivity, overactivity, crying often, inattentive, fidgeting, disturbing other children, easily frustrated, failure to finish things, quickly changing moods). Rating: 0= never, 1= occasionally, 2= often, 3= very often. Therefore the higher the score the more prominent and severe the symptoms. Other assessment instruments included standardized achievement and intelligence tests.

The medicines used included Calc-carb (15), Sulphur (8), Chamomilla (5), Lycopodium (5), Silica (5), Hepar-sulph (4), Nux-vom (4), China (3), Ignatia (3), and Mercurius (3). Each of the following were used in one case only: Capsicum, Causticum, Hyoscyamus, Phosphorus, Phosphoric-acid, Sepia, and Staphysagria. Each was used on a daily bases in the Q3 to Q42 potency (LM). No other treatment of any kind was permitted during the course of the study.

The progress under homeopathic treatment was assessed with the parents only at intervals of 4 weeks. After an unlimited period of observation, children eligible for the crossover phase of the trial were randomly assigned to either receive the appropriate homeopathic medicine or a placebo in a blinded trial. During the second period of the crossover phase, the groups were switched. Following the crossover phase, the children were then treated with their homeopathic medicine in an open label phase of the trial.

Study Results

Results showed that children did not improve while taking placebo, but continued to improve while taking the homeopathic medicine during the blinded phase of the trial and in the post-crossover phase. The median Conners rating for ADHD symptoms dropped from 19 at the start of treatment to a median of 8 within 6 weeks after the crossover phase of the trial. During the blinded trial the children receiving placebo had a high CGI rating of 12 compared to the homeopathic group with a rating of 9. After all children were returned to their homeopathic medicine, both groups returned to the low symptom level they had achieved before the crossover phase (median of 8).

The authors formed a definitive conclusion from this study. "The results of this trial point to the effectiveness of homeopathy in the treatment of ADHD."

Homeopathic and conventional treatment for acute respiratory and ear complaints: A comparative study on outcome in the primary care setting

BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine 2007, 7:7


The electronic version of this article is the complete one and can be found online at: http://www.biomedcentral.com/1472-6882/7/7

Received 19 September 2006
Accepted 2 March 2007
Published 2 March 2007


The aim of this study was to assess the effectiveness of homeopathy compared to conventional treatment in acute respiratory and ear complaints in a primary care setting.


The study was designed as an international, multi-centre, comparative cohort study of non-randomised design. Patients, presenting themselves with at least one chief complaint: acute (= 7 days) runny nose, sore throat, ear pain, sinus pain or cough, were recruited at 57 primary care practices in Austria (8), Germany (8), the Netherlands (7), Russia (6), Spain (6), Ukraine (4), United Kingdom (10) and the USA (8) and given either homeopathic or conventional treatment. Therapy outcome was measured by using the response rate, defined as the proportion of patients experiencing 'complete recovery' or 'major improvement' in each treatment group. The primary outcome criterion was the response rate after 14 days of therapy.


Data of 1,577 patients were evaluated in the full analysis set of which 857 received homeopathic (H) and 720 conventional (C) treatment. The majority of patients in both groups reported their outcome after 14 days of treatment as complete recovery or major improvement (H: 86.9%; C: 86.0%; p = 0.0003 for non-inferiority testing). In the per-protocol set (H: 576 and C: 540 patients) similar results were obtained (H: 87.7%; C: 86.9%; p = 0.0019). Further subgroup analysis of the full analysis set showed no differences of response rates after 14 days in children (H: 88.5%; C: 84.5%) and adults (H: 85.6%; C: 86.6%). The unadjusted odds ratio (OR) of the primary outcome criterion was 1.40 (0.89–2.22) in children and 0.92 (0.63–1.34) in adults. Adjustments for demographic differences at baseline did not significantly alter the OR. The response rates after 7 and 28 days also showed no significant differences between both treatment groups. However, onset of improvement within the first 7 days after treatment was significantly faster upon homeopathic treatment both in children (p = 0.0488) and adults (p = 0.0001). Adverse drug reactions occurred more frequently in adults of the conventional group than in the homeopathic group (C: 7.6%; H: 3.1%, p = 0.0032), whereas in children the occurrence of adverse drug reactions was not significantly different (H: 2.0%; C: 2.4%, p = 0.7838).


In primary care, homeopathic treatment for acute respiratory and ear complaints was not inferior to conventional treatment.

Br Homeopath J. 2001 Oct;90(4):180-2.

Comment in: Br Homeopath J. 2001 Oct;90(4):178-9.

Homeopathy in acute otitis media in children

Frei H, Thurneysen A.

Spezialarzt FMH fur Kinder and Jugendliche, FA Homoopathie SVHA, Laupen, Switzerland. dr.heiner.frei@swissonline.ch

The conventional antibiotic treatment of acute otitis media (AOM) faces a number of problems, including antibiotic resistance. Homeopathy has been shown to be capable of treating AOM successfully. As AOM has a high rate of spontaneous resolution, a trial to prove any treatment-effect has to demonstrate very fast resolution of symptoms. The purpose of this study was to find out how many children with AOM are relieved of pain within 12 h after the beginning of homeopathic treatment, making additional measures unnecessary. Two hundred and thirty children with AOM received a first individualized homeopathic medicine in the paediatric office. If pain-reduction was not sufficient after 6 h, a second (different) homeopathic medicine was given. After a further 6 h, children who had not reached pain control were started on antibiotics. Pain control was achieved in 39% of the patients after 6 h, another 33% after 12 h. This resolution rate is 2.4 times faster than in placebo controls. There were no complications observed in the study group, and compared to conventional treatment the approach was 14% cheaper.

Homeopathy fights hyperactivity ADHD (A second study).

Ritalin, the drug often prescribed to treat attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), worries many parents because of the dramatic effects it can have on children. Homeopathy may offer an effective alternative. According to a Swiss study, it works as well as Ritalin-perhaps better, in that it has no side effects. For the study, 115 boys and girls with ADHD between the ages of 3 and 17 received homeopathic remedies. After an average of 3 ˝ months, 86 of them (75 percent) had responded to the treatment with clinically significant improvements. Of the children in the study who received Ritalin, only 65 percent improved. The results were published in the British Homeopathic Journal.

J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol. 2009 May;23(5):538-43. Epub 2009 Feb 2.

Homeopathic treatment of patients with psoriasis--a prospective observational study with 2 years follow-up.

Witt CM, Lüdtke R, Willich SN. SourceInstitute for Social Medicine, Epidemiology and Health Economics, Charité University Medical Center, Berlin, Germany. claudia.witt@charite.de

Design Prospective multicentre observational study. Objective To evaluate details and effects of homeopathic treatment in patients with psoriasis in usual medical care. Methods Primary care patients were evaluated over 2 years using standardized questionnaires, recording diagnoses and complaints severity, health-related quality of life (QoL), medical history, consultations, all treatments, and use of other health services. Results Forty-five physicians treated 82 adults, 51.2% women, aged 41.6 +/- 12.2 (mean +/- SD) years. Patients had psoriasis for 14.7 +/- 11.9 years; 96.3% had been treated before. Initial case taking took 127 +/- 47 min. The 7.4 +/- 7.4 subsequent consultations (duration: 19.4 +/- 10.5 min) cumulated to 169.0 +/- 138.8 min. Patients received 6.0 +/- 4.9 homeopathic prescriptions.

Diagnoses and complaints severity improved markedly with large effect sizes (Cohen's d= 1.02-2.09). In addition, QoL improved (SF-36 physical component score d = 0.26, mental component score d = 0.49), while conventional treatment and health service use were considerably reduced. Conclusions Under classical homeopathic treatment, patients with psoriasis improved in symptoms and QoL.

Effect of Homeopathic Arnica montana on Bruising in Face-lifts

Results of a Randomized, Double-blind, Placebo-Controlled Clinical Trial

Brook M. Seeley, MD; Andrew B. Denton, MD; Min S. Ahn, MD; Corey S. Maas, MD

Arch Facial Plast Surg. 2006;8:54-59.

Objectives To design a model for performing reproducible, objective analyses of skin color changes and to apply this model to evaluate the efficacy of homeopathic Arnica montana as an antiecchymotic agent when taken perioperatively.

Methods Twenty-nine patients undergoing rhytidectomy at a tertiary care center were treated perioperatively with either homeopathic A montana or placebo in a double-blind fashion. Postoperative photographs were analyzed using a novel computer model for color changes, and subjective assessments of postoperative ecchymosis were obtained.

Results No subjective differences were noted between the treatment group and the control group, either by the patients or by the professional staff. No objective difference in the degree of color change was found. Patients receiving homeopathic A montana were found to have a smaller area of ecchymosis on postoperative days 1, 5, 7, and 10. These differences were statistically significant (P<.05) only on postoperative days 1 (P<.005) and 7 (P<.001).

Conclusions This computer model provides an efficient, objective, and reproducible means with which to assess perioperative color changes, both in terms of area and degree. Patients taking perioperative homeopathic A montana exhibited less ecchymosis, and that difference was statistically significant (P<.05) on 2 of the 4 postoperative data points evaluated.

Treatment of spasmodic dysphonia with homeopathic medicine: a clinical case report. Xue SA, de Schepper L, Hao GJ.

Speech Science Lab, Division of Speech and Hearing Sciences, 5th Floor, Prince Philips Dental Hospital, 34 Hospital Road, The University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong. axue@hku.hk

Botulinum toxin (Botox) injection is the only conventional medical treatment available for patients with spasmodic dysphonia (SD). Some patients are reluctant to receive Botox treatment due to concerns about unknown long-term side effects, expense, and dependence on repeated injections. The purpose of the study was to report the perceptual and physiological changes in the vocal functions of an SD patient treated with classical homeopathy. The results were similar to a previous case report: classical homeopathy seems to be capable of amelioratiny SD symptoms beyond the short-term effects of Botox injections. Although the physiological mechanism of homeopathic healing is not fully accounted for by the current bio-medical models, it may be an effective therapeutic alternative for some SD patients.

Wien Med Wochenschr. 2005 Nov;155(21-22):491-7.
Homeopathy in emergency medicine.
Oberbaum M, Singer SR, Friehs H, Frass M.

Center for Integrative Complementary Medicine, Shaare Zedek Medical Center, Jerusalem, Israel. oberbaum@netvision.net.il

BACKGROUND: Use of homeopathy is not frequently reported in critically ill patients. We describe our experience treating such patients homeopathically in the emergency room, on the wards, and in the intensive care unit of conventional hospitals in Austria and Israel. METHODS: We describe a case series of patients treated in the ER for multiple casualty incidents, two case reports of remarkable cures in the ICU, and two RCTs demonstrating the efficacy of homeopathy in septic and intubated patients. RESULTS: A case series documents favorable results in homeopathic treatment of patients in the ER and wards after multiple casualty incidents. Two case reports narration e remarkable homeopathic cures to imminently terminal illnesses. Finally, homeopathy was demonstrated effective as compared with placebo in improving long-term survival in severely ill septic patients and in hastening extubation ICU patients. CONCLUSIONS: Our report suggests that homeopathy may be applicable even for critically ill patients.

J. Kleijnen, P. Knipschild, G. ter Riet, "Clinical Trials of Homeopathy." British Medical Journal, February 9, 1991, 302:316-323.

This is the most widely cited meta-analysis of clinical research prior to 1991. This meta-analysis reviewed 107 studies of homeopathic medicines, 81 of which (or 77%) showed positive effect. Of the best 22 studies, 15 showed efficacy. The researchers concluded: "The evidence presented in this review would probably be sufficient for establishing homeopathy as a regular treatment for certain indications." Further, "The amount of positive evidence even among the best studies came as a surprise to us."

C. N. Shealy, MD, R.P. Thomlinson, V. Borgmeyer, "Osteoarthritic
Pain: A Comparison of Homeopathy and Acetaminophen." American Journal of Pain Management, 1998;8:89-91

A double-blinded study to document the relative efficacy of homeopathic remedies in comparison to acetaminophen for the treatment of pain associated with osteoarthritis (OA) among 65 patients. An IRB approved protocol. Results of the study documented better pain relief in the homeopathic group (55% achieved measured relief from homeopathy as compared to 38% from acetaminophen). The investigators conclude that homeopathic treatments for pain in OA patients appear to be safe and at least as effective as acetaminophen, and are without its potential adverse effects including compromise to both liver and kidney function. Many of the patients asked to continue with the homeopathic treatment.

M. Weiser, W. Strosser, P. Klein, "Homeopathic vs. Conventional Treatment of Vertigo: A Randomized Double-Blind Controlled Clinical Study." Archives of Otolaryngology—Head and Neck Surgery, August, 1998, 124:879-885.

This was a study with 119 subjects with various types of vertigo, half of whom were given a homeopathic medicine (a combination of four homeopathic medicines) and half were given a leading conventional drug in Europe for vertigo, betahistine hydrochloride. The homeopathic medicines were found to be similarly effective and significantly safer than the conventional control.

D. Reilly, M. Taylor, N. Beattie, et al., "Is Evidence for
Homoeopathy Reproducible?" Lancet, December 10, 1994, 344:1601-6.

This study successfully reproduced evidence from two previous double- blinded trials all of which used the same model of homeopathic immunotherapy in inhalant allergy. In this third study, 9 of 11 patients on homeopathic treatment improved compared to only 5 of 13 patients on placebo. The researchers concluded that either homeopathic medicines work or controlled studies don’t. Their work has again be recently replicated and is submitted for publication.

"Is Homeopathy a Placebo Response? Controlled Trial of Homeopathic Potency with Pollen in Hayfever as Model." Lancet, October 18, 1986, 881-86.

The double-blind study compared a high dilution homeopathic preparation of grass pollens against a placebo in 144 patients with active hay fever. The study method considered pollen counts, aggravation in symptoms and use of antihistamines and concluded that patients using homeopathy showed greater improvement in symptoms than those on placebo, and that this difference was reflected in a significantly reduced need for antihistamines among the homeopathically treated group. The results confirmed those of the pilot study and demonstrate that homeopathic potencies show effects distinct from those of the placebo.

"Acute Otitis Media in Children: A Comparison of Conventional and Homeopathic Treatment." Biomedical Therapy, 60,4,1997:113-116, originally published in German in Hals-Nasen-Ohren (Head, Nose, and Otolyngarology) August, 1996:462-66.

This study of 131 children allowed parents to choose homeopathic or conventional medical care from their ear, nose, and throat doctor. 103 children underwent homeopathic treatment, while 28 underwent conventional care. They found that the total recurrences of the homeopathic treated group was .41 per patient, while the antibiotic treatment group was .70 per patient. Of the "homeopathic" children who did have another earache, 29.3% had a maximum of three recurrences, while 43.5% of the "antibiotic" children had a maximum of six recurrences.

Homeopathy. 2003 Oct;92(4):177-81.

Effects of homeopathic treatment on pruritus of haemodialysis patients: a randomised placebo-controlled double-blind trial.
Cavalcanti AM, Rocha LM, Carillo R Jr, Lima LU, Lugon JR.

Community Health Institute, Universidade Federal Fluminense, Niterói, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

Pruritus is a frequent and difficult to treat problem in haemodialysis. This double-blind placebo-controlled randomised clinical trial assessed the role of homeopathic treatment in this situation. The code was held by the pharmacist who dispensed the medications. Pruritus was evaluated using a previously published scale. Only patients with initial values above 25% of maximum pruritus score were entered. Data were analysed after partial code break, separating the two groups of patients, but with no awareness of which one received verum or placebo. Patients were classified as responders if they had >50% reduction of pruritus score. Twenty-eight patients (16M/12F, 51 +/- 11 years of age) were entered and 20 (12M/8F, 52 +/- 8 years of age) remained for final analysis: 11 in the verum group, 9 in placebo. At entry, the mean pruritus score was 65 +/- 25% for the treated patients and 70 +/- 27% for placebo. After 15, 30, 45, and 60 days of follow-up, pruritus score were respectively: 46 +/- 29, 41 +/- 30, 42 +/- 29, and 38 +/- 33 for the treated patients and 61 +/- 29, 67 +/- 31, 64 +/- 35, and 57 +/- 39 for placebo. Reduction was statistically significant (P<0.05) at every point of observation. According to the patients' own assessment, at the end of the study period, the homeopathic treatment reduced the pruritus score by approximately 49%. Responders were more frequent in the treated group with statistical significance at 30 days (0% vs 45%, P=0.038). Homeopathic treatment may represent a worthwhile alternative to relieve pruritus in patients undergoing haemodialysis.

"Thermodynamics of extremely diluted aqueous solutions." [Implications regarding homeopathic dilutions] Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, June 1999

An extensive thermodynamic study has been carried out on aqueous solutions obtained through successive dilutions and succussions of 1% in weight of some solutes up to extremely diluted solutions, (less than 1x10-5 mol kg-1) obtained via several 1/100 successive dilution processes. The interaction of acids or bases with the extremely diluted solutions has been studied calorimetrically at 25_C. Measurements have been performed of the heats of mixing of acid or basic solutions, having different concentrations, with bidistilled water or with the extremely diluted solutions. Despite the extreme dilution of the solutions, an exothermic heat of mixing in excess has been found, in about the 92% of the cases, with respect to the corresponding heat of mixing with the untreated solvent. Here [it is shown] that successive dilutions and succussions may alter permanently the physical-chemical properties of the solvent water. The nature of the phenomena here described still remains unexplained, but significant experimental results are obtained.

Effect of homeopathic preparations of Syzygium jambolanum and Cephalandra indica on gastrocnemius muscle of high fat and high fructose-induced type-2 diabetic rats.
Sampath S1, Narasimhan A, Chinta R, Nair KR, Khurana A, Nayak D, Kumar A, Karundevi B.


Homeopathy is a holistic method of treatment that uses microdoses of natural substances originating from plants, minerals, or animal parts. Syzygium jambolanum and Cephalandra indica are used in homeopathy for treatment of type-2 diabetes. However, the molecular mechanisms responsible for such effects are not known.


Homeopathic preparations of S. jambolanum and C. indica in mother tincture, 6c and 30c were used to examine the molecular mechanism of antidiabetic effects in the skeletal muscle of rats with high fat and fructose-induced type-2 diabetes mellitus. After 30 days treatment, fasting blood glucose, serum insulin and insulin signaling molecules in the skeletal muscle (gastrocnemius) were measured.


Diabetic rats showed a significant decrease in serum insulin and lipid profile as well as low levels of insulin receptor (IR), v-akt murine thymoma viral oncogene homolog (Akt), p-Akt(ser473) and glucose transporter-4 (GLUT4) protein expression (p < 0.05) with a significant increase in fasting blood glucose level (p < 0.05) compared to the control group. Treatment with homeopathic remedies significantly increased the serum insulin and expression of these proteins (p < 0.05) with a significant decrease in fasting blood glucose (p < 0.05) compared to diabetic rats.

CONCLUSIONS: In the present study homeopathic preparations of S. jambolanum and C. indica, including ultramolecular dilutions exhibit antidiabetic effects, improving insulin action through activation of insulin signaling molecules in skeletal muscle of type-2 diabetic rats.

A potentized homeopathic drug, Arsenicum Album 200, can ameliorate genotoxicity induced by repeated injections of arsenic trioxide in mice. (J Vet Med A Physiol Pathol Clin Med. 2007 Sep;54(7):370-6.)

Banerjee P, Biswas SJ, Belon P, Khuda-Bukhsh AR.

Department of Zoology, University of Kalyani, Kalyani 741235, India.

Groundwater arsenic contamination has become a menacing global problem. No drug is available until now to combat chronic arsenic poisoning. To examine if a potentized homeopathic remedy, Arsenicum Album-200, can effectively combat chronic arsenic toxicity induced by repeated injections of Arsenic trioxide in mice, the following experimental design was adopted. Mice (Mus musculus) were injected subcutaneously with 0.016% arsenic trioxide at the rate of 1 ml/100 g body weight, at an interval of 7 days until they were killed at day 30, 60, 90 or 120 and were divided into three groups: (i) one receiving a daily dose of Arsenicum Album-200 through oral administration, (ii) one receiving the same dose of diluted succussed alcohol (Alcohol-200) and (iii) another receiving neither drug, nor succussed alcohol. The remedy or the placebo, as the case may be, was fed from the next day onwards after injection until the day before the next injection, and the cycle was repeated until the mice were killed. Two other control groups were also maintained: one receiving only normal diet, and the other receiving normal diet and succussed alcohol. Several toxicity assays, such as cytogenetical (chromosome aberrations, micronuclei, mitotic index, sperm head anomaly) and biochemical (acid and alkaline phosphatases, lipid peroxidation), were periodically made. Compared with controls, the homeopathic drug fed mice showed reduced toxicity at statistically significant levels in respect of all the parameters studied, thereby indicating protective potentials of the homeopathic drug against chronic arsenic poisoning.

Cytotoxic effects of ultra-diluted remedies on breast cancer cells.

Int J Oncol. 2010 Feb;36(2):395-403.

Frenkel M, Mishra BM, Sen S, Yang P, Pawlus A, Vence L, Leblanc A, Cohen L, Banerji P, Banerji P.

Integrative Medicine Program-Unit 145, Department of Molecular Pathology, The University of Texas M.D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX 77030-4009, USA. frenkelm@netvision.net.il

The use of ultra-diluted natural products in the management of disease and treatment of cancer has generated a lot of interest and controversy. We conducted an in vitro study to determine if products prescribed by a clinic in India have any effect on breast cancer cell lines. We studied four ultra-diluted remedies (Carcinosin, Phytolacca, Conium and Thuja) against two human breast adenocarcinoma cell lines (MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231) and a cell line derived from immortalized normal human mammary epithelial cells (HMLE). The remedies exerted preferential cytotoxic effects against the two breast cancer cell lines, causing cell cycle delay/arrest and apoptosis. These effects were accompanied by altered expression of the cell cycle regulatory proteins, including downregulation of phosphorylated Rb and upregulation of the CDK inhibitor p27, which were likely responsible for the cell cycle delay/arrest as well as induction of the apoptotic cascade that manifested in the activation of caspase 7 and cleavage of PARP in the treated cells. The findings demonstrate biological activity of these natural products when presented at ultra-diluted doses. Further in-depth studies with additional cell lines and animal models are warranted to explore the clinical applicability of these agents.

Atrial paroxysmal tachycardia in dogs and its management with homeopathic Digitalis--two case reports. - Homeopathy. 2007 Oct;96(4):270-2.Varshney JP, Chaudhuri S.

Division of Medicine, Indian Veterinary Research Institute, Izatnagar 243 122, India.

Homeopathic Digitalis 6c was evaluated in two clinical cases of atrial paroxysmal tachycardia in dogs. Tachycardias are common cardiac problems in dogs, and atrial paroxysmal tachycardia is a serious cardiac arrhythmia that may lead to syncope. Both adult dogs (Labrador and German Shepherd) were treated with Digitalis 6c, 4 drops orally four times daily for 7 days. Following treatment with Digitalis 6c heart rate stabilised and synchronized atrial and ventricular electrical activity was restored in 7 days.

J. Dittmann and G. Harisch,

"Characterization of Differing Effects Caused by Homeopathically Prepared and Conventional Dilutions Using Cytochrome P450 2E1 and Other Enzymes as Detection Systems." The Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine 1996 2:2,279-290.

Target of investigation was to ascertain differences in the effects of homeopathic potencies (D) and equally concentrated conventional dilutions (V) on p-nitrocatechol formation catalyzed by CYP 2E1. Arsenicum album and potassium cyanatum (D) were compared to equivalent dilutions of As203 and KCN (V). Significant differences in enzyme activity were found. The difference of influence exists and this may be attributable to the manufacturing process of homeopathic drugs, namely, the stepwise dilution with intermediate agitation.

Homeopathy for Postoperative Ileus?: A Meta-analysis

Barnes, Joanne B. Pharm., M.R.Pharm.S.; Resch, Karl-Ludwig M.D., Ph.D.; Ernst, Edzard M.D., Ph.D., F.R.C.P. (EDIN) Abstract

Homeopathic remedies are advocated for the treatment of postoperative ileus, yet data from clinical trials are inconclusive. We therefore performed meta-analyses of existing clinical trials to determine whether homeopathic treatment has any greater effect than placebo administration on the restoration of intestinal peristalsis in patients after abdominal or gynecologic surgery. We conducted systematic literature searches to identify relevant clinical trials. Meta-analyses were conducted using RevMan software. Separate meta-analyses were conducted for any homeopathic treatment versus placebo; homeopathic remedies of <12C potency versus placebo; homeopathic remedies of =12C potency versus placebo. A "sensitivity analysis" was performed to test the effect of excluding studies of low methodologic quality. Our endpoint was time to first flatus.

Meta-analyses indicated a statistically significant (p < 0.05) weighted mean difference (WMD) in favor of homeopathy (compared with placebo) on the time to first flatus. Meta-analyses of the three studies that compared homeopathic remedies =12C versus placebo showed no significant difference (p > 0.05). Meta-analyses of studies comparing homeopathic remedies <12C with placebo indicated a statistically significant (p < 0.05) WMD in favor of homeopathy on the time to first flatus. Excluding methodologically weak trials did not substantially change any of the results.

There is evidence that homeopathic treatment can reduce the duration of ileus after abdominal or gynecologic surgery. However, several caveats preclude a definitive judgment. These results should form the basis of a randomized controlled trial to resolve the issue.

Study Shows Homeopathy Can Reduce Health Care Cost

A study published in the archives of Family Medicine 1998;7:537-40 by Jennifer Jacobs, M.D. showed that physicians using homeopathy spent more time than the national average with each patient, but ordered fewer tests and prescribed fewer conventional medicines. This study compliments data published in France, where 40% of the physicians use homeopathic medicine in their daily practice.

According to a 1991 report published by the French government, the total cost associated with homeopathic care per physician was about half of that associated with conventional physicians. On a per patient basis, homeopathic care costs 15% less. A 1996 French report on prescription costs found that homeopathic medicines account for 5% of all medicines prescribed in France, though they represent only 1.2% of all drug reimbursements due to their lower cost per prescription.

It was also noted in this report that patients under the care of homeopathic physicians took fewer sick days (3.5 times fewer) than those under the care of conventional general practitioners. Dr. Jacobs stated, “when our study is matched with the French government reports, we can see the possibility of remarkable cost savings associated with the practice of homeopathy.” Dr. Jacobs went on to say that “this possibility is underscored by the fact that homeopathic physicians in America often treat chronic problems, such as allergies, arthritis, and digestive problems, which tend to be extremely costly to treat in conventional ways.”

Paolo Bellavite and Andrea Signorini,

Homeopathy: A Frontier in Medical Science. Berkeley: North Atlantic, 1995.

This is the most notable book on homeopathic research to date. There are some excellent chapters that present compelling theories on how homeopathic medicines may work, in the light of new physics, biophysics, fractals, chaos, and complexity theory.

To view a PDF document distributed by the European Network for homeopathy Researchers (ENHR) and the European Council for Classical Homeopathy (ECCH), listing a sample of clinical trials, please click on the following link:

ENHR Clinical Trials

The most compelling evidence: Over 200 years of clinical observations in clinical practice documented in thousands of homeopathic medical journals (which include successful treatment of some of the most serious medical conditions including tuberculosis, pneumonia, diptheria, scarlet fever, cholera, meningitis, pertussis), materia medicas and case logs.